Running head : TOURETTE SYNDROMETourette SyndromeNameCollegeDate Tourette SyndromeTourette syndrome (TS ) is a chronic , familial , neurobiological dis with itsonset in childhood and is marked by presence of self-generated motor movements and sounds , known as motor and vocal tics respectively (Bagheri , Kerbeshian Burd , 1999 . According to Lingui-Systems (1999 cited in Prestia , 2003 , approximately 1 in each 2 ,500 individuals suffer from TS , with boys being diagnosed more frequently than girls Tourette s syndrome similarly known as Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (after its discoverer Georges Gilles de la Tourette , a French neurologist , lot be considered to be the nearly complex and severe manifestation of the spectrum of tic bruise (Kwak Jankovic , 2002Etiology and PathogenesisThe exact water supply of TS is not kn own . TS is supposed to view a multifactorialetiology with , infectious and environmental factors playing an important role in its teach . Concordance rate of about 60 in monozygotic twins and 10 in dizygotic twins well-read genetic basis behind TS (Bagheri et al , 1999 . The mode of infection system of Tourette s syndrome is controversial . Though the exact patho-physiological mechanism implicit in(p) the affection has yet not been discovered , abnormalities in revolutionary ganglia (shown in figure 1 ) and frontal cortex have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette s syndrome (Bagheri et al Abnormality in secretion of neuro-transmitters oddly dopamine is also thought to be associated with TS (Bagheri et alFigure1 . question Structures snarled in Tourette SyndromeSource : John Henkel , J (2006 . Food and medicine court . Retrieved on 21 April 2007 from http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Image :Brain_structure .gifSymptomsTourette s syndrome follows a fluctuat ing course in most children Symptomsusually ! appear at about 6-7 years of age . Many factors like foreboding stress , substance abuse etc can intensify tics . point of tics (both motor and vocal ) is characteristic of TS .
According to American psychiatrical Association s Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental provoke , fourth edition- text revision (DSM-IV-TR , 2000 , tics ar defined as sudden , rapid , purposeless , repetitive , non-rhythmic stereotyped movements or vocalizations . Tics in TS are not constantly present (except in extremely severe cases ) and occur on a context of use of normal motor activity (Kwak Jankovic , 2002 . This dis us ually begins with simplex tics which move ahead over time into more complex ones different types of simple and complex tics as described by Bagheri et al (1999 ) which can be seen in patients with TS have been enumerated in gameboard 1 . Besides TS , tics can be seen associated with other neurologic diss like (encephalitis , Huntington s disease etc . These secondary tics , not associated with Tourette syndrome are commonly referred to as tourettism (Bagheri et al , 1999Table 1 .Common Types of Tics Seen in Patients with Tourette SyndromeSIMPLE TICS interlocking TICSMotor tics song or phonic tics Motor tics Vocal or phonic ticsEye blinking Throat clearing Flapping blazonry talk of the town to oneselfSticking tongue out Sniffing Facial grimacing assuming different intonationsHead move Barking Adjusting or picking at wearable Coprolalia blurting out grimy or socially inappropriate...If you want to fascinate a bounteous essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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