Saturday, March 9, 2019
Ethnic Identity and African Americans Essay
heathenish identity is the sum substance of group member feelings about those values, symbols, and common histories that identify them as a distinct group (Smith 1991). reading of pagan identity is important because it seconds angiotensin-converting enzyme to come to terms with their ethnic membership as a gravid quotation group and significant part of an individuals overall identity. ethnical reference group refers to an individuals psychological relatedness to groups (Smith 1991). These reference groups help adolescents intellect, reflect and see things from the burden of their ethnic groups in which they officiously participate or seek to participate.What is ethnic identity? The establishment of identity is an important, complex task for all adolescents, and is considered a major develop kind task for all adolescents. It is particularly complicated for adolescents belong to ethnic and minority groups. Ethnic identity of the legal age group of individuals is ever vali dated and reinforced in a positive manner where as the minority group is constantly ridiculed and punished in a veto manner. What does this say for those adolescents who ar the minority and not the volume?It is important to information or research ethnic identity because it provides better knowledge to help one understand striving for a thought of unity and connectivenesss in which the self provides meaning for direction and meaning of ethnic identity (Spencer, 1990). It is in any case important to study or research the differences between these groups due to beliefs and values. Adolescents that ar the minority are confronted with their ethnicity at an earlier age then albumen adolescents majority and they are constantly aware of ethnic differences, which means it is of greater importance to understand the development of the minority individual.It should lead to unalike assessments when it comes to ethnic identity. For example, African the Statesn adolescents are psychologi cally compared to Caucasian American adolescence diagnoses, which are sometimes inaccurately assessed. Bronfenberner explains the theoretical perspective such as the bionomical perspective by saying, The implications for clinical treatment of African American adolescents, mental health workers must be sensitive to the ecological context of their clients. intellectual Health workers must realize that there is no single entity called the non-white family .The black families compared to the other families established their American family. He suggests that these families vary dramatically in backgrounds, social economic status, values, and degree of acculturation to the norms and values of mainstream America (1990). in that respect are also, significant differences that may exist in homework of African American adolescent, at the level of rearing family practices and in schools (1990). That is, schools elapse to reflect historical values that deal with racial-stereotypes and preju dice and beliefs.At the said(prenominal) time there are families trying to avoid and make crystallize out of such situations. These families and communities continue to show constancy by lend their own beliefs and values through child rearing which maybe different from Caucasian Americas. Identity and ethnicity as adolescent issues Identity has been defined in many ways. It is the concept used to describe an individuals star of who he or she is (Dashefsky and Shapiro, 1976). Changes in identity occur throughout the lifetime cycle, however, the changes in identity are usually most notable during adolescence. compound a positive sense of ethnic identity into ones overall personal identity is an important task of late adolescence (Steinberg, 1996). Ethnic identity has been defined as the aspect of ones sense of identity concerning ancestry or racial group membership (Steinberg, 1996). Ethnic identity development is an essential human need because it provides a sense of belonging a nd historical continuity. Ethnic socialization nonage children are confronted with their ethnicity at an earlier age than their majority counterparts (Smith, 1991).Parents can help to speed up the early stages of ethnic identity development by taking an active approach to ethnic socialization. Ethnic socialization, according to Steinberg(1996), refers to the process through which parents larn their children about their ethnicity and about the certain experiences they may have with the broader society. Ethnic socialization consists of three themes 1) understanding ones own culture, 2) getting along in mainstream society, and 3) dealing with racism (Steinberg, 1996). Possible outcomes of ethnic identity development.There are four ways to deal with ethnicity (Steinberg, 1996) Assimilationadopting the cultural norms of the majority while rejecting the norms of ones own culture. Separationrejecting the majority culture and associating only with members of ones own culture. Marginality living within majority culture but feeling estranged. Biculturalismmaintaining ties to both cultures. According to Steinberg (1996) many deal that biculturalism is more successful than the other four. With biculturalism minority youth have admission to the norms of the majority and minority culture depending on the situation.References Smith, Elise J. Ethnic Identity Development Toward the Development of A Theory within the Context of Majority/Minority Status. Journal of counsellor and Development JCD. v70. n1. Sept. 1991. p. 181-188. Spencer, Margaret Beale. Child Development. v61 n2. Apr. 1990. P. 290-310. Dashefsky, A. (Eds. ). (1976). Ethnic identity in society. Chicago Rand McNally College Publishing Co. Smith, E. J. (1991). Ethnic identity development Toward the development of a theory within the context of majority/minority status. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 181-187. Steinberg, L. (1996). Adolescence. New York McGraw-Hill, Inc.