Friday, August 16, 2019
Integrated Pest Management Strategies In Zanzibar Environmental Sciences Essay
Integrated Pest Management ( IPM ) was adopted by Plant Protection Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Zanzibar to better agricultural production on major harvests ( rice, banana, manioc and veggies ) at little graduated table agriculture system. The multi-disciplinary group of IPM facilitators created consciousness to husbandmans by carry oning seminars, workshops and treatments. The IPM groups were formed through Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal ( PRRA ) . PRRA was besides used to place jobs and developing demands. Farmer field School attack was introduced utilizing the version of the methodological analysis adapted from South East Asiatic Ecosystem. Farmers were empowered on environmentally sound patterns such as disease free planting stuffs certified seeds, botanical control, etc. On-farm tests within Participatory Action Research ( PAR ) was besides conducted by participatory engineering development method. A sum of 52 husbandmans Ã¢â¬Ë groups affecting 1,038 husbandma ns ( 549 males and 489 females ) have been trained. There was a output addition for all the harvests with the acceptance of IPM pattern, irrigated rice was from 2.2 Ã¢â¬â 4.4 tons/ha, rainfed rice 2.3 Ã¢â¬â 3.4 tons/ha, tomato 9.5 Ã¢â¬â 33.7 tons/ha, amaranthus 4.2 Ã¢â¬â 11.7 tons/ha, bananas 11.3 Ã¢â¬â 17.6 tons/ha, and cassava 15.9 Ã¢â¬â 33.6 tons/ha. The consequences had a good impact in footings of acceptance of engineerings by the IPPM husbandmans and the adjacent husbandmans. 1. Introduction More than 90 % of husbandmans in Zanzibar are resource-poor with no entree of input or recognition ( Abubakar, 2005 ) . They depend on subsistence agribusiness for their support, traditionally the cropping system is on little graduated table farms averaging 3 estates ( 1.2 hour angle. ) of cultivable land and really complex. Rice was ranked an of import basic nutrient harvest followed by bananas and manioc ( Saleh, 2007 ) . Vegetables are considered as a hard currency harvest instead than nutrient harvest. Farming is being practiced is all over the island due to its adapatation to diverse dirt and environmental conditions. As a monocrop, rice is grown in paddy countries whereas veggies, manioc and banana were largely grown on infertile dirts or as an intercrop with sweet murphy, yams or lasting trees such as cloves and coconuts. This pattern serves several intents such as guaranting nutrient security, optimum usage of dirt and infinite, eroding control and weed direction. Food securi ty is unstable due to rapid population growing of 3.1 % ( Mzee, 2000 ) , economic growing is deficient to maintain up with population growing. Most of the local cultivars were abandoned, their disappearing was linked with low opposition to plagues and diseases, drouth emphasis, market demand. The overall tendency in production has been diminishing due to figure of factors, depletion of dirt foods, population force per unit area. Output losingss caused by plague and diseases can be up to 80 % . This has forced husbandmans to increase the production by increasing land area. However the mean output is still really low of 2-7t/ha. In response to these agro ecological and socio economic jobs, alternate production systems were tested e.g. pesticide application, usage of chemical fertilisers, but resource hapless husbandmans can non afford them unless they get subsidies from the authorities. Therefore, to achieve an addition in nutrient production for the betterment of rural support, schemes for environmentally safe pest control steps have to be adopted. The schemes could be developed based on a thorough cognition of traditional cultural control methods or IPM. Integrated Pest Management seem to be the best attack to increase production and lessening poorness in Zanzibar An Integrated Pest Management ( IPM ) attack was adopted to cut down plague job and inordinate usage of pesticides ( Sharma et al. 2009 ) . The Farmer Field School ( FFS ) attack, a theoretical account for IPM plan worldwide, with dramatic consequences in South East Asia ( Erbaugh et al, 2002 ) was besides adopted. Plant Protection division with its authorization on harvest protection issue in Zanzibar implemented IPM on four harvests ( rice, banana, veggies and manioc ) . 2.0 The aim of presenting IPM plan was: To authorise husbandmans with the capacity to detect innovate or make solutions to their ain restraints instead than anticipating external inputs from the authorities. To increase production by developing farming engineerings utilizing locally available resources. To increase nutrient security and income of the rural support, therefore relieving poorness. 3.0 Methodologies Workshops/Seminars to make awareness to policy shapers, caputs of sections field agribusiness officers and husbandman. Multi-disciplinary squads of group of facilitators were formed dwelling members from different specialisation of agribusiness in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment. Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal ( PRRA ) was conducted to set up baseline information on husbandmans autochthonal cognition, jobs encountered. The activities employed were: Meetings, the first meeting discussed the aims and why work on participatory mode. Semi Structured Interview ( SSI ) : was based on checklist from which the inquiries were addressed to husbandmans to beg their responses. Individual interviews were besides conducted. The information collected from different sources was used for comparing the information to avoid confusion. Transect walk was made across the small town. The intent was to introduce the group with the farming system of the country, agro ecological state of affairs and socio-cultural feature of the people. Group Discussions: The group treatments were conducted after the single interview. Findingss and information were gathered presented and discussed. Training and Participatory treatments: A program of action was formulated based on jobs and developing demands identified during the PRRA. Training was done through treatments affecting relevant capable affair specializer ( SMS ) . Some subjects were covered when demand arises. Farmer Field School Approach ( FFS ) : FFS was adopted with the constitution to FFS, the construct of holistic attack was practiced without being restricted to the control of plagues and diseases. The rules followed were to turn healthy harvest, monitor field sporadically, analyze the agro-ecosystem ( AESA ) and do on-farm tests. 4.0 Consequences 4.1 Problem Designation The major jobs identified were from 4 major harvests. The general jobs for all 4 harvests were hapless harvest direction, usage of morbid seeds and seting stuffs, depletion of dirt foods, uninterrupted cropping on the same land on verifying SSI and ranking methodological analysis on participatory treatment ; the chief restraints became ; ( I ) plagues and diseases ( two ) hapless dirt birthrate ( three ) inaccessibility of seeds ( four ) deficiency of proficient cognize how. For rice really few plagues were present and the staying insects were natural enemies which does non hold any loss ; the major jobs were soil birthrate and harvest direction. Nematodes, banana weevils and black sigatoka were the job for banana. High figure of plagues were present in vegetable Fieldss but the of import 1s were African bollworms, fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt which is a large restraint. Cassava brown Streak Disease ( CBSD ) and Cassava Mosaic Virus ( CMV ) for manioc 4.2 Depletion of Soil Foods The diminution of harvest output was a effect of increased food emphasis which might hold been resulted in harvest susceptibleness of plagues onslaught and cut down capacity to retrieve from plague harm ( Spittel. 1997 ) . Farmers claimed hapless output was caused by uninterrupted cropping, and some of them is due to planetary heating, dirt eroding and scarceness of rains. Most of the husbandmans did non precisely describe the restraints of hapless oil birthrate. To verify, if the premise was right, dirt samples were collected indiscriminately at a deepness of 25 centimeters and exhaustively assorted. They were sent for analysis at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro in 2007. The consequence of the Soil Analysis is as follows: 3.6 % organic affair, pH ( H20 ) 4.7, 0.06 % entire N, 0.36 meq/100g of Exch base 3.8meq/100g available P ( Brays PI ) and textural category of flaxen clay ( Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007 ) . In all dirt pH, the organic affair content, N content and available phosphoric were really low. Even cassava and banana grows good at pH 6.0 aaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ Ã¢â¬ 7.5.Low pH may take to toxicity particularly for rice and veggies ( Spittel, 1997 ) . Therefore together with husbandmans, it was decided to better dirt birthrate through harvest farming. 4.3 Prioritization The tools for prioritization were semi-structured interview, ranking ( matrix pairwise ) and seasonal calendar. The husbandman group identified its restraints and restrictions. In nutrient harvest ranking, all the four harvests were of import since intercropping is the methodological analysis practiced by resource hapless husbandmans in Zanzibar. In group treatments, SSI consequences and matrix, the jobs were ranked harmonizing to their importance. The ranking was: ( I ) depletion of dirt foods ( two ) deficit of certified planting stuffs. ( three ) plague and disease ( CBSD for manioc, banana weevils for banana, fusarium wilt for veggies and inordinate usage of pesticides for rice ) 4.4. Community Training and Participatory Discussion The preparation plan was focused on restraints identified by husbandmans. They were trained and empowered on different attacks of deciding by choosing options which they thought would be appropriate in their vicinity. Planning was done with engagement of the husbandmans The community were empowered on recommended agricultural patterns, e.g. Compost readying, Agriculture Ecosystem Analysis ( AESA ) , usage of biopesticides for control of plague and disease, biofertilizers to increase birthrate and other demand driven preparation. It was conducted during the cropping season to synchronise with the activities For most of the jobs, harvest direction was found to be the best option. On-farm Tests were conducted on ; Banana Technology Transfer Trial. The consequence of paring banana corm on nematode direction and the consequence of pin downing on weevil direction. For banana sigatoka disease, the engineering adopted were the usage of tolerant cultivars and field hygiene. For CBSD, on farm tests were conducted on tolerant cultivars therefore, Mahonda, Kizimbani etc. , For Fusarium Wilt, the usage of tolerant cultivars eg. Salma, tegeru 99 was adopted. Other tests were on Cultivar Trial: Tests were conducted on seting several assortments improved, local, septic and non septic cultivars. It someway convinced husbandmans that were no symptoms on improved cultivars. 4.5. Farmer Field School ( FFS ) Plant Protection Division has been authorising staff and husbandmans through preparation to implement IPM-FFS in sustainable mode. The methodological analysiss adopted from were from West African and South East Asia Ecosystem of FAO. This attack should suit the subsistence and multi-cropping systems of Zanzibar husbandmans. The aim of FFS to authorise husbandmans to cut down the cost of production and maximise net income ( net returns ) , usage of farm inputs judiciously and seasonably, protect harvest production environment and minimise wellness jeopardies caused by inordinate usage of pesticides. At the FFS, the four cardinal rules: turning a wellness harvest, supervising Fieldss on a regular basis, conserving natural enemies, and doing husbandmans IPM experts were emphasized. Farmers were facilitated to pull off their Fieldss through regular observations, conduct on-farm participatory tests and finally made rational determinations about pull offing their Fieldss. The methodological analysiss of developing husbandmans at the IPM agriculture system was season long and it involved Agro-Ecosystem Analysis ( AESA ) , Participatory Action Research ( PAR ) and Particular Topics, Group kineticss and Evaluation. The ultimate purpose of this attack was the authorization of husbandmans to do appropriate determinations as to like an expert pull off their field jobs. Therefore Participatory Technology Development ( PTD ) which is the result of Participatory Action Research ( PAR ) which is a research conducted together with husbandmans on work outing field jobs. This was promoted by on-farm tests by proving tolerant assortments, harvest direction and betterment of dirt birthrate. The consequences were evaluated and empowered for acceptance if they were assuring. 5.0 Development of IPM During the formation of FFS, an rating was done sing the acceptance of IPM activities. The restrictions identified were: South East Asia Approach: IPM in S.E. Asia started to antagonize the indiscriminate usage of pesticides and pest revival in green revolution agribusiness ( Van de Fliert, 2006 ) . For the agrarian state of affairs in Zanzibar, husbandmans were barely utilizing any pesticides, and the farming systems was characterized by small-scale husbandmans wilt low dirt birthrate, plague and disease and socio-economic position. The IPM Program should see the facet of Crop production and betterment of harvest through different agriculture patterns. Therefore, the attack should be an integrated harvest direction ( ICM ) instead than IPM because of its holistic nature. The FFS attack of hebdomadal IPM preparation session was non really attractive for some harvests ( banana and manioc ) . It appeared that husbandmans of high-value harvests such as rice and veggies were more enthusiastic than banana and manioc husbandmans ( Van Huis and Meerman 1997 ) . Facilitation accomplishments: At the beginning of IPM development in other developing states, hapless acceptance activities were observed due to miss of preparation in facilitation accomplishments in managing and developing IPM bundles ( Alteiri 2000 ; Morse and buhler, 1997 ) . In Zanzibar, most of the facilitators were research workers or harvest production specializers with few extensionist. There was a demand for preparation, facilitation, participatory and socio-economic issues to hold effectual attacks. Consequently, this will better the acquisition capacity of husbandmans and determination shapers ( Van de Fliert, 2006 ) . Most of the members of husbandmans group were semi-illiterate. The techniques introduced did non affect active engagement by husbandmans. To guarantee acceptance, husbandmans should take part and understand the aim of on-farm tests. How of all time, it may be necessary to transport out on-station tests as the thought should be obtained about the potency of a certain pattern before presenting it to the husbandmans, peculiarly when the result is unsure ( Van Huis and Meerman, 1997 ) . Farmers outlook and Committednesss: The group consisted of 20 husbandmans at the initial phase, but 10 husbandmans remain after a twelvemonth. Follow-up was done by examining from their fellow husbandmans. The 10 husbandmans drop out because their outlooks were non met, though breast was clearly explained prior. There were few influential husbandmans who influenced the attitude of other husbandmans. However the attitude of staying husbandmans was cohesive and really participatory during execution. 6.0 Accomplishments With this attack husbandmans were empowered by agro eco system analysis to be the determination shapers, by being advanced and create solutions in their Fieldss. The production was increased by following participatory engineering development ( PTD ) . Hence there will be possible to increase nutrient security and income of the rural support, therefore relieving poorness. The advancement have been observed through different facets ; coaction is multi disciplinary, husbandmans were organized, committed and participatory. Furthermore, there is a considerable betterment of their cognition. A sum of 52 husbandmans group with 1,038 husbandmans ( 549 males and 489 females ) have been trained. A sum of 52 FFS were run, 26 in Unguja and 26 Pemba as planned. Crops covered were irrigated rice 14 FFS ( Unguja 8 and Pemba 6 ) , rainfed rice 8 FFS ( Unguja 4 and Pemba 4 ) , vegetables 6 FFS ( Unguja 4 and Pemba 2 ) , bananas 13 FFS ( Unguja 5 and Pemba 8 ) and cassava 11 FFS ( Unguja 5 and Pemba 6 ) . A considerable output addition for all the harvests has been achieved with IPM pattern compared to husbandmans pattern. For illustration, output addition for irrigated rice was from 2.2-4.4 tons/ha, rainfed rice 2.3-3.4 tons/ha, tomato 9.5-33.7 tons/ha, amaranthus 4.2-11.7 tons/ha, bananas 11.3-17.6 tons/ha, and cassava 15.9-33.6 tons/ha ( see Table 1 ) . The consequences were promising had a good impact in footings of acceptance of engineerings involved by the IPM husbandmans every bit good as some of the adjacent husbandmans outside IPM plan. Table 1: FARMER FIELD SCHOOL STUDY PLOTS FOR MAJOR CROPS ( IPM and FarmersaaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬aÃ¢â¬Å¾? pattern ) Crop FarmersaaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬aÃ¢â¬Å¾? Practice ( tons/ hour angle ) IPM Practice ( tons/ hour angle ) Addition in output( % )1. Irrigated rice 2.2 4.4 100 % 2. Rainfed rice Katrin BKN aaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ Ã¢â¬ Supa Supa Subang 1.9 1.1 2.0 2.7 3.0 1.5 2.4 3.7 57.9 % 36.4 % 20 % 37 % 3.Vegetables Ã¢â¬â Tomatos 9.5 33.7 254.7 % Ã¢â¬â Amaranthus 4.2 ( 8,333 Bunches ) 11.7 ( 23,333 Bunches ) 180 % 4. Banana Ã¢â¬â Mtwike 11.3 17.6 55.8 % Ã¢â¬â Mzuzu 7.8 16.5 111.5 % Ã¢â¬â Mkono mmoja 14.3 15.6 9.1 % Ã¢â¬â Pukusa 13.1 13.6 3.8 % 5. Cassava Ã¢â¬â Kibiriti mweusi 18.5 31.3 69.2 % Decision IPM is a focal point in research and extension attack, it has been good developed in the past decennaries. IPM was foremost developed into conventional, top-down extension activities with its purpose of acceptance of inputs or recommendation. But, it had a low degree of success ( Bruin & A ; Meerman, 2001 ) . Traditionally, IPM was being practiced by resource-poor husbandmans before the term existed. The debut of pesticides displaced old incorporate pest control attacks ( Van de Fliert, 2003 ) . However, Zanzibar husbandmans do non utilize big sum of pesticides because they can non afford expensive pesticides, unless subsidized by the authorities. The recent developments of IPM seem extremely applicable to all facets of sustainable agribusiness. We need to concentrate what is accomplishable under the husbandman fortunes instead than what is technically perfect. IPM had a really successful history in footings of its acceptance by husbandmans from S.E. Asiatic states, with limited succ ess of acceptance among African husbandmans ( Van Huis, 2009 ) . IPM is site and status specific The S.E. Asia theoretical account could non be an adoptable bundle in Zanzibar since the jobs were different, such as socio-economic state of affairs and the type of farming system. The acceptance was on socio-economic and ecological parametric quantities associated with rules and development of IPM. The manner forward is to follow the engineering developed at community degree for long term footing. FFS is a good starting point for the development of sustainable agricultural system Recognitions Many thanks to Strengthening Plant Protection Division Project of Zanzibar for back uping and advancing this plan, Commissioner of Agriculture Mr. M.R. Said for the encouragement and counsel. I am profoundly indebted to husbandmans, IPM group for their priceless aid and coaction for the work making this phase, non burying Omar for his great aid while fixing this paper.