Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Child Development Theories in Focus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Child Development Theories in Focus - Essay Example Focus will be on BrofenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ecological Model which links development to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s various factors in the environment that influence the childÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences, learning and growth. The selected developmental stage to be discussed in this paper is the early childhood stage (age 2-6 years). In order to have a clearer picture of early child development, other theoretical frameworks by Piaget, Erikson, Freud, Maslow, Vygotsky and Bowlby shall also be referred to in conjunction with BrofenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s model as the theoretical framework of this paper. If applicable, the significance of the theory to early childhood children shall be discussed especially if the theory describes certain developmental stages. BrofenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ecological Model (1979) explains that the behaviour and development of an individual is an interplay of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s biological and personality factors, his environment and the society and culture he was born into. Brofenbren ner also claims that effects of interactions between the individual and his environment are two-directional or characterized by reciprocity. This means that while a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development is influenced and moulded by his family, school and peers, he likewise influences and moulds the behaviour of others. The growing child moves through five systems that inter-relate and affect his development, namely, the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. The most basic ecological level is the microsystem, where direct contacts between the child and his immediate surroundings result in behaviours such as dependence or independence and cooperation or competition. An example of this is the home base of the child and his relationship with his family. The pure culture of the society the family lives in greatly influences how the family lives and how the child imbibes the culture as he expresses it in his developing personality. The microsystem is usually where the chi ld first develops attachments to his significant others like his parents. John BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1982) Attachment theory posit that attachment provides children with a sense of security, promotes communication and the expression of feelings and becomes a secure base for children to discover their world and eventually learn self-regulation and self-control. It is a devise that contributes to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s developing sense of self. Research done by Rudolph Schaffer (1977) and Jerome Bruner (1977) yielded the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëjoint involvement episodesÃ¢â¬â¢ (JIEÃ¢â¬â¢s) which may be related to the quality of attachment a child and his or her mother or significant other has. The researchers observed mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ and their babiesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour while focused on a potential learning episode. While jointly involved in play, for instance, they fall into a turn-taking pattern of behaviour and such cooperation teaches the child about the rules of their play within a safe and se cure environment with a familiar adult. This gives him more courage to explore his world knowing he has a safe base to return to. The next level of BrofenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ecological model is the mesosystem, which comprises the linkages and processes that take place between two or more settings with the child in common. A perfect example is how learning in school is supported by follow up lessons in the home. At this level, the child gets to understand associations between people and things.